Long Rifle Series

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The Unique Characteristics of Canon NB-2L Battery

Canon nb-2l batteries are a common feature in most types of PV systems that are not connected to the utility grid. In addition to providing storage, batteries can also be used for several other functions:

Storage. Canon nb-2l batteries store energy being produced by a given generating source, and when this source is unavailable this energy can be be used by the load. The inclusion of storage in any energy generating system will increase the availability of the energy.

Start-up current. Canon nb-2l batteries can provide higher currents to the load than the array alone can provide. This is especially useful if a particular load has a high current draw on start-up. Many motors initially have a high current requirement.

Power conditioning.Batteries can function as power conditioning. Two cases where this feature is used is in directly coupled systems, such as water pumping, and in uninteruptable power supplies.

In addition to the different mode of operation, batteries in photovoltaic systems also must bee several other criteria. As reliability and low maintenance are desirable in photovoltaic systems, the batteries must also have a long lifetime. Further, since batteries will often be a substantial fraction of the total cost of a PV system, cost is a significant factor in batteries for PV systems. In general, batteries manufactured for other applications are not well suited to photovoltaic energy applications. The key characteristics of a battery in a renewable energy system are:

efficiency of the battery;

how battery capacity and lifetime is affected by deep cycling and extended states of low charge;

the intial and ongoing battery costs; and

the maintenance requirements of the battery.

The previous pages have focused on relatively ideal battery systems, containing only a single oxidation and reduction reaction with a large surface area electrode. In practice, several affects in a battery further alter the performance and operating conditions of the battery, including the presence of additional chemical reactions (which causes battery gassing, corrosion of the electrodes and self-discharge), and changes in the shape of configuration of the electrodes and electrolyte (which may cause shedding or sulfation of the battery (in lead acid batteries), or stratification of the electrolyte. (electrode changes – also caused by solubility in the electrolyte).

All chemical reactions proceed in both the forward and reverse direction. In order for the reverse reaction to proceed, the reactants must gain enough energy to overcome the electrochemical difference between the reactants and the products and also the overvotlage. Usually in battery systems the probability of the reverse reaction occuring is small, since there are few molocules with a large enough energy. Although small, however, there are some particles that do have sufficient energy. In a charged battery, a process exists by which the battery can be discharged even in the absence of a load connected to the battery. The amount a battery discharges upon standing is known as self-discharge. Self-discharge increases as temperature increases because a greater fraction of products will have enough energy for the reaction to proceed in the reverse direction.

xxx- picture of energy diagram and distribution of carriers, showing the portion of carriers that can have the reverse reaction.

An ideal set of chemical reactions for a battery would be one in which there is a large chemical potential which releases a large number of electrons, has a low overvotlage, spontaneously proceeds in only one direction and is the only chemical reaction which can occur. However, in practice there are several effects that degrade battery performance, due to unwanted chemical reactions, to effects such as the change in phase of volume of the reactants or products and also to the physical movement of reactans and products within the battery

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